A project organization is a structure that facilitates the coordination and implementation of project activities. Its main incentive is to create an environment that encourages interactions among the project personnel with a minimum amount of distractions, overlaps and conflicts. At the start of every project, it is important to first select the organization structure. On the basis of unique characteristics of the project, each project structure various forms its own advantages and disadvantages. The main goal of an organizational structure is to reduce confusion and uncertainty that is almost certain to occur in a projectâ€™s early stages. The structure defines the relationships among members of the project management and the relationships it has with its stakeholders. It does this by using an organizational chart. There are three organizational structures that will be the focus of this paper and they are functional structure, matrix structure and pure project structure. There are many project considerations that need to be taken into account when choosing a project management structure. The size of the project is one of the main concerns since it is an all encompassing topic that needs to be addressed early on in the timeline. Next is strategic importance. Who or what stands to gain from the success of this project? There is also the need for innovation and technology. Projects are sometimes meant to break boundaries and existing resources might not be able to cut it. The project manager needs to see if the required technologies will be developing along side the project to ensure itâ€™s on time completion. Also, there is the need for integration, which is if multiple departments need to be involved. Sometimes departments run on different schedules and uniting them together means some very tricky scheduling. Having this schedule written up and agreed upon by all departments can make this much easier to accomplish. There is also environmental complexity, which is the number of external interfaces that could possibly affect the project during the course of its construction. Things like the weather, the government or people are some examples of things that need to be analyzed carefully to ensure they do not cause any significant delays. Lastly, and certainly the most important, is budget and time constraints and the stability of those resources. A project cannot go beyond just a blueprint of an idea without the time and money eeded to make it take shape. Sometimes a company needs to prepare for years in order to raise the required resources to even begin a project. It would not be hard imagine the forethought that goes into this. Also, finding the available time to dedicate to the project is a difficult task itself. How can a company allot time to a project without it hampering its everyday tasks? What good is a project if the resources going into cripple the company it is for? It is a delicate balance to maintain which cannot be decided on a whim. Once all of these concerns have been thought through, a management structure can finally be decided on. Each structure has its own advantages and disadvantages, which makes choosing the structures a fairly complicated task. Let us go through each of them to see what they are capable of allowing managers to do. The functional structure allows employees within the functional divisions of a company to perform a set of specialized tasks. Each department is staffed with the appropriate employees. Engineers stay in the engineering department and human resources stay in HR. It is a very clear cut method to keep the right people in the right place doing the job they are suited to do. The one downside to this structure is that there is very little communication between the different divisions. If there is an urgent change that needs to be done, it is very likely that all the divisions would be able to react at the same time. A functional structure is best suited for a producer of standardized goods and services in large volumes at low costs. Every department knows what it needs to do and how to do it. Let the divisions work on their specific tasks is basically the motto of this structure. The next structure to discuss is the matrix structure. In a matrix structure, employees are grouped based on function and product. The employees are selected based on strengths and weaknesses so that the entire group can cover for each other and form an effective team with all its bases covered. Individuals are chosen according to the needs to of the project and the project managers of each group are directly responsible for completing the project within the agreed upon deadline and budget. There are downsides however. Since every group has its own project manager, there can sometimes be a conflict between them over the allocation of resources. One group might need more money or time to finish their tasks, but that would leave the other groups with less to work with. Also, the independence granted to each of the groups can make it difficult to monitor them all if the need arises. Lastly, costs can increase exponentially if each group has more and more managers and sub managers. The last structure is pure project which gives the project manager total control over the project they oversee. Simply put, a pure project organization might also be termed a task force. In the case of a pure project, the leader of this task force would have to be given total authority for a limited period to solve a particular problem. The pure project structure offers powerful advantages of clear project authority, access to special expertise, project focus and priority. This also simplifies project communications since all messages and concerns are taken directly to the leader for them to look over and decide upon. The disadvantages, on the other hand, include a duplication of effort, intercompany rivalries, uncertain reintegration of resources and unclear motivations and loyalties. If a project has an all powerful leader, the project essentially becomes their project. It can potentially steer the project on a course that the rest of the staff does not agree with. This is another source of significant delays and can change what the project is about and affect its chances of success. All of these structures have their own strengths and weaknesses, which have to be adapted to the projects they support. A simply error in selecting the wrong one can spell disaster for a project before it even has a chance to start. A manager should look at every aspect of a project, both in the current time and in the near future; to decide which structure will give it the best chance to accomplish its objectives. After all, the structure is made to help the project along, not drag it down.
The Palestinian Question Essay Introduction Moses, one time prince of Egypt turned escaped murderer, was tending his flock when one day he saw a â€˜Burning Bush.â€™ The burning bush boomed with the voice of God and told him to â€œLead my people out of Egypt, and deliver them to the land of Milk and Honeyâ€ the land of Cannan. These famous anecdotes from the books of Exodus and Genesis are possibly two of the oldest and most definitive claims Israelites have to their lands. Ever since their independence in 1948 the state of Israel has weathered conflict after conflict against its Arab neighbor who would like nothing better than to see them driven into the sea. For instance, in the Yom Kippur War of 1973 a multi-national host from Egypt, Syria, Libya, Iraq, Jordan and many other Arab nations banded together to crush the fledgling state. The failure of these efforts to destroy Israel and the mutual hatred it has inspired has led to a severe refugee problem for the displaced Palestinian Muslims. To this day there are tens of thousands of Palestinians who hold themselves to have been driven from their homes and will not rest until they take it back. But to do so they must contend with an Israel that holds a thousands year-old claim on the realm. History of Palestine Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â The land of Israel is located along the eastern shores of the Mediterranean. The land has changes names many times but since biblical times it have been a contentious territory. The Pharaohâ€™s armies passed through from Egypt to make war further west. Assyrian, Babylonian and Persian armies marched over Israel to make it to Egypt and beyond. Alexanderâ€™s Macedonians, and Caesarâ€™s Romans also took Israel as just another part of their campaigns of world conquest. The Crusader braved thousands of leagues of hostile lands to make it to the land of Christâ€™s birth. War and bloodshed has been the fate of the land where three of the worldâ€™s major religions were born. The Land of Cannan Abraham, Isaac and Israel When Abram, a nomad from Ur, was asked by God to abandon his fatherâ€™s lands and go east he began the migration that would eventually end with Abraham and Sarah living with honor among the Cannanites. God promised him that he would be his children would be as numerous as the stars and as plentiful as the sands in the beach. Yet he only had two sons IsaacÂ and Ishmael. Muslims, claim descent from Ishmael, while the Jews are the heirs of Isaacâ€™s son Jacob who would later be known as Israel. Israel had twelve sons from whom the twelve tribes of Israel claimed descent. One of the youngest was sold to Egypt as slave. Joseph would soon be high in the favor of the Egyptian Pharaoh and would welcome his brothers to Egypt following a terrible famine that he had predicted. Since then the Hebrews and the Sons of Israel left Cannan and lived in Egypt. Moses and the book of Exodus After some time the Hebrews prospered in Egypt and soon became a worrying minority for the Pharaoh. He began one of the first pogroms against the Hebrews by oppressing them with more work and less rations. He murdered their children and ordered all male babies killed. However his persecution was to be his own bane, Moses was saved by his mother and eventually found his way to the gates of Pharaohâ€™s palace where he would be adopted by the Pharaohâ€™s daughter. Moses would later kill an Egyptian he saw oppressing a Hebrew slave. The shock of the murder would force him into exile in the SinaiÂ where he had his fateful encounter with the burning bush. As mentioned earlier it was there that God gave him his mission to free the Hebrews from their oppression and bring them back to Cannan where Israel and his sons abided before they came to Egypt.Â After more than 40 years of wandering in the desert the Hebrews finally returned to Cannan under the leadership of Joshua. There they found the Cannanites, the Hittites, Amorites, Perizzites, Hivites and the Jebusites already living in relative peace for centuries. Ironically, when the Zionist Jews returned in the 20th Century they found Cannan in similar circumstances. Except that instead of biblical, possibly mythological tribes occupying it they found the grandfathers of the present day Palestinians. Jesus, the false Messiah and the Diaspora Jesus of Nazareth, the messiah of the Christian faith warned the people of Israel that a false messiah would come and lead them astray. He would show such signs as to make the people believe that he is indeed the messiah. This occurred in around 70AD when the Jews rose up in revolt. It was hopeless cause, we Nero finally found about the revolt he sent ordered several legions to suppress it. By the time of the fall of Jerusalem some 60,000 professional legionaries were in the Palestine suppressing the desperate Zealots. A later revolt in 135AD led to the complete annihilation of the Jewish state in Judea. The reign of Hadrian was especially tragic for the Jews because all Jews were exiled from Jerusalem and the other Palestinian cities. Many Jews were sold as slaves or transported as prisoners to other regions to joint other previously exiled Jews. Although most were accepted in the communities they were sent too, the Jewish people had ceased to exist as a political entity. Henceforth, they were merely small minority groups where ever they lived. Their lot was certainly better than the Christian Gentiles who often found themselves in the coliseum facing hungry lions. The Holy Land Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â With the rise of Christianity and Islam Palestine gained fresh importance. For the Christians this was the land where Jesus lived and began his ministry while the Muslims believed that the Mohammad ascended into heaven on the very same rock where Abraham tried to sacrifice his son Isaac. It was known as the Holy Land. Much blood would be shed by the Cross and the Crescent in the trials for its possession. The Crusades In1095 it was held by Muslims. Outraged Christian Europe under the leadership of Pope Urban II send a vast army against the Turkish Muslims. As an added incentive Poper Urban II promised that whoever died in the Crusades would receive immediate remission of their sins. The crusader army was successful. However, in their zeal against the Muslims they performed a large number of atrocities that are remembered to this day. For example, when Jerusalem was taken the Crusaders slaughtered the entire population. Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â The Crusaders were successful in establishing several small Christian Kingdoms. However, these were tiny islands trapped in a sea of foes. Almost as soon as they were established, the Christian Kingdoms were attacked continuously by Muslim Jihadis leading to the fall of quite a few of them in rapid succession. The movie Kingdom of Heaven was about Saldinâ€™s retaking Jerusalem and the dramatic extremes men of both faiths would go for the sake of possessing the Holy Land. Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Ultimately Three Major Crusades and several smaller ones were launched for the conquest of the Holy Land. For over a century Christian Europe bled itself white sending the flower of its chivalry to war in a hostile land with little hope of success. Yet just as the cause seemed hopeless thousands of young knights and noblemen gladly came forth in hopes of gaining glory in the name of their God. Saladin Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Saladin a Kurdish born Muslim nobleÂ who ruled Egypt and later SyriaÂ was like most Muslim ruler could not accept that infidel Christians were now lording over some of the holiest places of the Muslim faith. At first he was not strong enough to oppose the Crusaders because his hold on Egypt was still fragile and he was often at odds with neighboring Muslim states. Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â After he had finally consolidated his hold on the Muslim world, Saladin would launch a bloody and often atrocious Jihad against the Christian Kingdoms. Atrocity was met with Atrocity, as the two faiths strove with each other for master of the Holy Land. For example, after the Battle of Hattin Saladin ordered all members of the Military orders such as Teutonic Knights and the Knights Templar beheaded on the spotÂ the Crusaders were no less cruel against Muslim prisoners. One example of their own cruelty was the practice of blinding Muslim prisoners allowing only every fifth man the use of one eye to lead the rest. Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Ultimately, the bloodshed ended with the terrible battles of the Third Crusade. There Richard Couer De Leon of England, Philip II of France and Conrad of the Holy Roman Empire led the vast armies of the Third crusade against Saladin. After many battles Richard and Saladin agreed to the Treaty of Ramala where Jerusalem would remain in Muslim hands but Christians would be free to go there on pilgrimages. The founding of Israel Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â After the Saladin, the Holy Land remained in Muslim hands for centuries. Saladinâ€™s realm ended almost immediately after his death. Within a few short decades the Ottoman Turks were the new owners of Palestine. It was not until Lawrence of Arabia led his army of Arabian nomads to victory in World War I that the Ottomanâ€™s were overthrown. However, instead of independence for the Arabs, the British took over Palestine and established their authority over them. Palestine in the early 20th century was a British territory populated by Arab Muslims. However an increasing trickle of Jews were arriving from all over the British Empire and the rest of the world. The Zionists were coming home. Zionist movement Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Named after Mt Zion were Jerusalem was built, Zionism is an international political movement for the creation of a homeland for the Jewish people in the Land of Israel. Also known as diaspora nationalismÂ It was formally established by Jewish Journalist Theodor Herzl in the late nineteenth century. The movement is highly successful having created the first and only modern jewish state in the world. These ultra-nationalistic Jews are the result of centuries of frustration of not having a home land and the discrimination they suffer all over the world at the hands of Christians, Muslims and others simply because they are a minority that has a different faith. Ironically, despites its origins as a movement to oppose racism and racial discrimination against Jews the U.N. has branded Zionism as a form of racism and racial discrimination Â As mentioned earlier Zionism as a nationalist ideology arose as a response to anti-Semitism which was a form of heavy handed discrimination against Jews. For centuries, especially in the 19th and 20th Centuries the Jews had been victims of racial and religious discrimination. Christians persecuted them as the murders of Christ and forced them to convert. In fact, one of the prayers of the old Latin mass is a missive for the conversion of Jews. Communists also persecuted them for being true to their faith in when a communist state was supposed to be one that was free from religion which was the opiate of the masses. Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â At heart the Zionists justified themselves as being one distinct nationality unified by their faith. Seeing other minorities in Europe struggle for self-determination emboldened them to seek for a home land of their own. After all, if the European minorities were entitled to a free country of their own why not the Jews?. Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â The first congress of Basel in 1897Â was the meeting where the major agitators behind Zionism met for the first time and formally established the World Zionist Organization. At that congress the Basel Program was completed and its manifesto provided that; Zionism seeks to establish a home for the Jewish people in Israel secure under public law. To attain this goal they set about on four programs; first, the promotion by appropriate means of the settlement in Israel of Jewish farmers, artisans and manufacturers. Second, the organization and uniting of the whole of Jewry by means of appropriate institutions, both local and international, in compliance with the laws of each country, third the strengthening and fostering of Jewish national sentiment and national consciousness, foruth, preparatory steps towards obtaining the consent of governments, where necessary in order to reach the goals of Zionism. Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â However, there was little interest in the rest of the world for the sake of the Jews. The world simply did not care. It was not until Hitler unleashed the Holocaust upon the helpless Jews that international sympathy for Zionism catalyzed into actual action. After World War Twoâ€™s horrors more and more Jews came to Palestine in fulfillment of Zionismâ€™s goals. There they found the land much as Joshuaâ€™s Hebrew found it. Full of Palestinians who were occupying land that, they felt, rightfully belong to the Jews. 1948 War Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â By 1947 the tension between the Jews and Arabs had reached fever pitch. The Jews were naturally interested in self-propagation and often held themselves apart from the Arabs when they could. They did not hire Arab workers if they could find help among other Jews. Their settlers were increasing in number and quite soon were a significant bloc of the population. The UN mandated that separate enclaves for Jews and Arabs would be created within Palestine in order to lessen the friction between the two groups. The Zionist leadership accepted the partition plan as the indispensable minimum, glad as they were with the international recognition, but sorry that they didnt get more. Unfortunately the arbitrary partition was the spark for an already explosive situation. Thousands of Jews and Palestinians were displaced by the mandatory and arbitrary partition. Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â The Stage was set for war. The Zionists were ready, they had trained both under British rule and in underground camps for the day when they would have to fight for independence. Despite the tiny population of the fledgling Jewish state thousands of Jewish men and women formed a committed fighting force under the aegis of the Yishuv, all told some 35,000 Jews took up the cudgels for independence although only about 10,000 of these were actually fit for frontline duty. They also had the elite Palamch commandos to spearhead their attacks. The Palamach and its wartime exploits Â After the defeat of the Arabs in Palestine, the entire Arab World was stirred to wrath. Quoting the ancient victories of Saladin against the marauding Crusaders, the Arabs united to crush these new usurpers of their Holy Land. Like the Crusaders of old the young state of Israel was faced with a tide of foes many times their number and driven to fanaticism by their common faith. It went down to a test of wills, on who wanted the Holy Land more. The Arabs, driven with Jihadi fanaticism were determined to overthrow the Jews from the Holy Land. The Jews, had nowhere else to go. Ultimately, with a combination of superior tactics and training, not to mention the internal squabbling between the Arab leaders, the Jews prevailed. For the first time since the days of Rehoboam son of Solomon son of David, the Children of Israel had a land of their own independent and free. Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Unfortunately it would not be the end of its struggles. Israel would face wave after wave of invaders from its Neighbors who simply refused to accept their existence in Palestine. Nevertheless, they stood their ground and have staunchly defended their territories ever since. Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â They were also not above launching preemptive strikes, In 1967 After much saber rattling by their enemies, especially Egypt the Israeli government became convinced that war was eminent. Rather then be attacked again the Israeliâ€™s struck first. Led by the formidable Hel HaAvir, the Israeli air force, The Israelites began the Six-Day war. The Egyptian, Syrian and Jordanian forces were utterly defeated. By the end of the fighting Israel stretched from Suez Canal in the East to the Golan Heights in the west effectively trebling their land area. One of the most significant results of the war was that Israel now controlled all of Jerusalem. Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Simply, put after centuries of frustration and discrimination, the Zionist movement had come of age. Despite many trials and set backs they succeed in bringing the Jews home. Verily, every Jewish family in Israel can look to its past and claim that a relative fought heroically in defense of Israel in one of the many wars of the Arab-Israeli conflict. Invested with generations of blood and suffering, and mandated by God himself. The Israelis are loath to concede so much as an inch of their territory to those who would take it from them. In fact, every Israeli soldier, whether elite commando, foot solider or simply citizen reservist, takes an oath â€œMasada (the ancient fortress where the last Jewish freedom fighters died resisting the Romans) shall not fallâ€. By their vigilance it has not fallen. The Palestinian Dilemma Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â The story of the Israeli struggle for self-determination spans centuries. It makes for dramatic reading. However, the events have left a certain group of people in a lurch. The Palestinians who originally held the territory before the Israelites arrived. Dispossession of Palestinian settlers after 1948 Al Nakba (The Catastrophe) The years following the 1948 conflict are known as the lost years. Disorganized Palestinian militias were no match for the determined and well trained Yishuv forces. Many former Palestinian enclaves fell under the power of the Jews. The few that remained free of Jewish domination were taken over by Syria, Lebanon and Egypt. Having just fought a blood civil war with their Jewish neighbors the Palestinians were bitter and resentful. There was little love between the two people. Many chose to flee or were driven away by the Israelis as both were unwilling to abide with each other. However, by the 1950s a new generation of Palestinians formed nationalist groups that were organized clandestinely gathering strength before revealing themselves in the 1960s. The original Palestinian elite who had negotiated with the British and the Zionists during the mandate years were held accountable of Palestine and were replaced by these groups. Many members of these groups came from the middle-class who recently graduated from universities in Cairo or Damascus and imbibed in the ideals of Pan-Arabism put forth by Nasser. Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â The humiliation of Nasser and his movement during the Six Day war further dimmed the hopes of the Palestinians. Not only had the Arab armies failed to liberate Palestine from the Jews but they lost even more territories and the Palestinians were further displaced. With many of their organizations in ruins and the people once again exiled from their homes, the Palestinians pinned their hopes of on the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO). Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â The Palestinian people are a point of consternation for the Israeli because before the arrival of the Jews and their independence in 1948 there really was, in their opinion, no Palestinian state or Palestinian people just a group of settlers from various other Arab regions Golda Meir herself said; It was not as though there was a Palestinian people in Palestine considering itself as a Palestinian people and we came and threw them out and took their country away from them. They did not exist. Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â With such an attitude from a former head of state it is no wonder that Israel is loath to deal with the Palestinians as anything more than a refugee problem. Simply, put the Israelis believe that the only reason the Palestinians banded together was in opposition to the Zionists. Even their text books are written in such a way as to disavow a unique Palestinian identity. The books describe them as Arabs in the land of Israel instead of calling them Palestinians. Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â The refugee problem is aggravated by the refusal of other Arab countries to accept the Palestinian refugees. Rather than welcome their fellow Muslims the Arabs have forced the Palestinians to remain marginalized and desperate for a land to call their own. In summary the heart of the problem is a refusal of the Israeli state to grant the same right to self-determination that they claimed for themselves in 1948. Worsened by a refusal of the Arabs to grant asylum to the Palestinians. As a result the Palestinians are increasingly desperate and with national governments unwilling to offer help they have turned to terrorist groups like Al-Quaeda. Palestine Today Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â The United Relief Works Agency estimates that there are just under 4.5 MillionÂ Palestinian refugees. They are defined as those â€œwhose normal place of residence was Palestine between June 1946 and May 1948, who lost both their homes and means of livelihood as a result of the 1948 Arab-Israeli conflictâ€. Given that many of these are dead by now the number is made larger by the inclusion of those who were born to people in such circumstances. Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Many Palestinians live in abject poverty, they are discriminated by the Israelis who will often hire them at below mandated wages. The numerous terrorist organizations who recruit from Palestinians have created a heavy suspicion on all of them. Virtually every Palestinian is seen as a potential terrorist or suicide bomber. Two major rebellions and the failure of the Palestinian Authority to address problems ranging from Peace and Order to wages of PA employees have made the people even more frustrated and desperate. Is it then any wonder that many young Palestinians would rather strap on bombs on their bodies and blow themselves up to kill a few Jews instead of living lives of drudgery and disenchantment? III. Analysis â€œAll human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights.They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.â€ Begins the Universal Declaration of Human rights. The International Covenant for Civil and Political rights offers this rejoinder â€œAll peoples have the right of self-determination. By virtue of that right they freely determine their political status and freely pursue their economic, social and cultural development.â€ It is regrettable that these rights are denied to The Palestinian people. Unfortunately, these rights are extreme difficult to implement given the geo-political structure of Israel today. As late as 2006 the Palestinian Terror group known as Hezzbollah was firing rockets into Israel causing random destruction of property and lives. They also kidnapped several Israeli solider and killed others in surprise attacks and raids. The Israelis reacted by attacking Lebanon. Palestinians are treated with suspicion where ever they go within Israelâ€™s borders. The Palestinian Authority, already questionable to the Israeli was completely discredited by the death of Yasser Arafat and the lack of a worthwhile successor. Worse, the conflict has since spread to far beyond the borderâ€™s of Palestine. Part of Bin-Laden usually inflammatory spiels is to remind the Muslim world that the U.S. has been sponsoring the Zionist state of Israel and that without their aid the Israeli state would long be gone. Harkening to the mass airlift of supplies the U.S. made to Israel during the Yom Kippur. As a result the Israeli affair has become a cassus belli for Muslims to legitimize their attacks on those who seek to support Israeli. An older example of this was the Oil embargo that OPEC pulled back in 1973 when it was obvious that the Arabs were losing the Yom Kippur War. However, this support of Israel is not the only grief the Arab world has against the U.S. they are called the Greater Satan for more reasons. Among them are the invasion of Afghanistan, Somalia and more recently Iraq all in pursuit of their self-proclaimed mandate as protectors of the free world. Sovereignty, International perspective One of the most critical arguments about the Israeli â€“ Palestinian conflict is the issue of Sovereignty over Palestine. Naturally, the two sides have almost completely diametrically opposed interpretations of events with respect to this. The 1920 San Remo conference was held between the British, the Zionists and the Arab settlers of Palestine and was done mostly to ease rising tensions with respect to the Jews mass immigration. The Jews hold the the San Remo conference explicitly granted them the mandate for a Jewish homeland in Palestine. As a result, their claims are valid not only by de facto, since by the end of 1948 they controlled the land by force of arms, but also de jure by virtue of the treaty. Jewish legal experts also believe that Israel had the right to sovereignty over the territories since Jordan and Egypt had no clear legal sovereignty over those areas and the Israel, acting in self defence, was entitled to enter those regions to fill the vacuum. Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Naturally, the Arabs hold that the San Remo conference conferred no such right to the Jews. Not only did it not offer them sovereignty but it also did not identify which parts of Palestine were going to be subject to this alleged Jewish Home land. To further their point they also insist on the right to self-determination of national groups which has long been recognized under international law. The same right enshrined in Art 1 of the ICCPR Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â In addition, most Arabs and Israelis agree that the armistice line of 1949 is not a valid international border. Both groups also agree that a two state solution is best to end the conflict between the Israli and Palestinian people. The two states will be demarcated by the 1949-1967 armistice lines. This would provide the best solution because the Palestinian authority has been an abject failure. It was never strong enough to assert itself over the average Palestinian citizen and was plagued with problem from the beginning. The fact that its civilian authority was often over shadowed by Israeli military garrisons did not help its credibility. Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â The international consensus it that the Annexation of the Golan Heights and East Jerusalem is illegal and should not be recognized under international law. The occupation of the West Bank and Gaza strip has the status of an illegal occupation because they were conquered via force of arms and against the will of the populations Also, the people were rendered stateless by the attacks and the Israeliâ€™s put the territory under military rather than civilian administration. Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â After the Six-Day war the UN stepped in with UN resolution 242. Adopted unanimously, it called for the Establishment of a just and lasting peace in the Middle East which was to be achieved by following two principles; First, the Withdrawal of Isreali forces territories occupied in the conflict and second, termination of all claims or states of belligerency. Also included were respect for the of every state in the region to live in peace within secure and recognized borders. All state parties in the Six day war agreed, in principle,Â to UN Res 242 with the exception of Syria which granted it conditional acceptance in 1972 Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â However, the state of belligerency remained deeply rooted amongst the Arabs. The heads of Arab states adopted their own resolution in a conference held at Khartoum, in September 1967. The famous three Nos; no recognition of the Israeli conquests, and no negotiations and most importantly no recognition of the Israeli state. Conclusion Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Israel fought long and hard to achieve independence. For centuries they were a down trodden minority oppressed and discriminated upon by their neighbors. However, it would appear that they are doing to the Palestinians exactly the same thing they endured. By forcing the Palestinians to remain stateless and poor they are driving them to desperate ends. Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â A war for to conquer Israel is out of the question, time and time again the IDF has shown itself a competent army. The oath â€œMasada shall not fallâ€ burns in the heart of every Israeli tanker and reservist, they are determined never again to be conquered by force of arms. Short of nuclear weapons no Arab army will defeat the Jews in battle. The Yom Kippur war is the best expression of this, despite the element of surprise the Arabs were ultimately defeated by an Israel surrounded and with little more than moral support from the outside world. The best solution to the problem would be simply to allow the Palestinians true autonomy under Palestinian leaders. After all the right to self determination is guaranteed by the UDHR and the ICCPR. The cost of securing the Palestinian enclaves is a drain on Israeli manpower and finances. Letting them live their lives on their own is going to be best course of action. By granting them true independence the Palestinians would only have themselves to blame if they failed and this would take the wind of the â€œFreedom!â€ slogan being sold them by terror groups. With out the justification of, allegedly, liberating the Palestinians from the Oppressive Jews Islamic extremists would lose much of their popular support in Palestine for their terror attacks Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Israel has been recognized by her neighbors only recently, although her armies are competent, this does not mean she can run roughshod over her neighbors. By ridding itself of the legal monkey known as the Palestinian Question it would unburden itself of unneeded pain. The Palestinians enclaves are enclaves precisely because they are territories that Israel and her neighbors care little for. With the possible exception of the Gaza Strip, losing the territories the Palestinians hold would be a small loss. There is plenty of room in Israel for her Seven Million citizens. After all, did not Israel make the desert bloom? Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â For the Arabs, they must match their talk with action. They bleed for the Palestinians yet more aid comes to them from working illegal jobs in Israel than from humanitarian aid from their Arab brothers. Arab countries rich with oil could certainly provide subsidies to help the Palestinians get back on their feet if they are granted independence. If Bin Laden can afford to spend millions to fund his terror initiatives why canâ€™t the Arab states spare a little of its petrol money to help their Muslim brothers? Is not Charity part of the Muslim commandments? References The book of Exodus 3:7-8 in Holy Bible The Good News Bible in Todayâ€™s English Version 1978 Book of Genesis in Holy Bible The Good News Bible in Todayâ€™s English Version 1978 http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/urban2-5vers.html#Fulcher (Last accessed 14 Dec 07) Fulcher of Chartres, Medieval Sourcebook. Available at http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/urban2-5vers.html#Fulcher (Last accessed 14 Dec 07) Vladimir Minorsky, The Prehistory of Saladin, Studies in Caucasian History, Cambridge University Press, 1957, Malcolm Lyons and D.E.P. Jackson, Saladin: The Politics of the Holy War United Nations General Assembly Resolution 3379 session 30 on 10 November 1975 Arjun, Sethi Zionism The British in Palestine January 2007, available at http://fusion.dalmatech.com/%7Eadmin24/files/zionism_in-britishpalestine.pdf (Last accessed 12 Dec 07 The Basle Program. Resolutions of the First Zionist Congress available at http://www.mideastweb.org/basleprogram.htm (last accessed 10 Dec 07) Morris, Benny (2001). Righteous Victims: A History of the Zionist-Arab Conflict, 1881-2001. El-Nawawy, Mohammed (2002), The Israeli-Egyptian Peace Process in the Reporting of Western Journalists, Ablex/Greenwood, Gelber, Yoav. Palestine 1948. WAr, Escape and the Emergnece of the Palestinian Refugee Problem. Sussex Academic Press. (2006) Karsh, Efraim. The Arab-Israeli Conflict. The Palestine War 1948. Osprey Publishing. (2006) Khalidi, Rashid (1997). Identity:The Construction of Modern National Consciousness. New York, NY: Columbia University Press p 190 Cooley, John K Green March, Black September, Frank Cass, London 1973 pp.196f Zionist Aspirations: Dr Weizmann on the Future of Palestine, The Times, Saturday, 8 May, 1920 Weizmann â€œThe missing Revisoner: reflections on the Status of Judea and Samariaâ€ 3 Israel law review (1968) Blum, Yehuda, â€œThe Juridical Status of Jerusalemâ€ (1974) United Nations Security Council Resolution 497 (December 17, 1981), about the Golan Heights. United Nations Security Council Resolution 478 (August 20, 1980), about East Jerusalem. United Nations Security Council Resolution 242 (S/RES/242) Hinnebusch, Raymond A.; Drysdale, Alasdair. Syria and the Middle East Peace Process. New York: Council on Foreign Relations Press, (1991) Â See Exodus 3:7-8 in Holy Bible The Good News Bible in Todayâ€™s English Version 1978 See Genesis 12:1-2 in Holy Bible The Good News Bible in Todayâ€™s English Version 1978 See Genesis 21:1-8 in Holy Bible The Good News Bible in Todayâ€™s English Version 1978 See Genesis 16:1-114 in Holy Bible The Good News Bible in Todayâ€™s English Version 1978 Genesis 46:1-33 in Holy Bible The Good News Bible in Todayâ€™s English Version 1978 Exodus 1:8-16 in Holy Bible The Good News Bible in Todayâ€™s English Version 1978 Â Exodus 2:1-8 in Holy Bible The Good News Bible in Todayâ€™s English Version 1978 Exodus 2:11-16 in Holy Bible The Good News Bible in Todayâ€™s English Version 1978 Â Exodus 3:7-8 in Holy Bible The Good News Bible in Todayâ€™s English Version 1978 Â Fulcher of Chartres, Medieval Sourcebook. Available at http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/urban2-5vers.html#Fulcher (Last accessed 14 Dec 07) Â Vladimir Minorsky, The Prehistory of Saladin, Studies in Caucasian History, Cambridge University Press, 1957, pp. 124-132. Malcolm Lyons and D.E.P. Jackson, Saladin: The Politics of the Holy War p 2 Â Beha ad-Din, The Life of Saladin, pages 278-281 Â Gellner, Ernest. Nations and Nationalism (First edition), p 107-108. Â United Nations General Assembly Resolution 3379 session 30 on 10 November 1975 Â Arjun, Sethi Zionism The British in Palestine January 2007, available at http://fusion.dalmatech.com/%7Eadmin24/files/zionism_in-britishpalestine.pdf (Last accessed 12 Dec 07 The Basle Program. Resolutions of the First Zionist Congress available at http://www.mideastweb.org/basleprogram.htm (last accessed 10 Dec 07) l-Nawawy, Mohammed (2002), The Israeli-Egyptian Peace Process in the Reporting of Western Journalists, Ablex/Greenwood, p 1-2 Â Morris, Benny (2001). Righteous Victims: A History of the Zionist-Arab Conflict, 1881-2001. p 190 Â Gelber, Yoav. Palestine 1948. WAr, Escape and the Emergnece of the Palestinian Refugee Problem. Sussex Academic Press p. 73, also; Karsh, Efraim. The Arab-Israeli Conflict. The Palestine War 1948. Osprey Publishing. (2006) , p. 25. Â Khalidi, Rashid (1997). Identity:The Construction of Modern National Consciousness. New York, NY: Columbia University Press p 190 Cooley, John K Green March, Black September, Frank Cass, London 1973 pp.196f Art 1 UDHR ICCPR Art 1 Zionist Aspirations: Dr Weizmann on the Future of Palestine, The Times, Saturday, 8 May, 1920; p. 15. Â 3 Israel Law Review p190 All peoples have the right of self-determination. By virtue of that right they freely determine their political status and freely pursue their economic, social and cultural development United Nations Security Council Resolution 497 (December 17, 1981), about the Golan Heights. United Nations Security Council Resolution 478 (August 20, 1980), about East Jerusalem. Â Hinnebusch, Raymond A.; Drysdale, Alasdair. Syria and the Middle East Peace Process. New York: Council on Foreign Relations Press, (1991) p 105